The growth of hybrid carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella (Val.) Especially for human nutrition, cysteine + methionine, threonine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, lysine, and leucine are important. We thank Walter Laemmler, Landolt Duckweed Collection Zurich for providing some additional clones. Depending on strain and growing conditions, duckweeds can have very high protein content of up to 50% of dry mass. Res. 4) Used for the treatment of white patches on skin. Pedanius Dioscorides (1st century AD) recommended duckweed against St. Anthony’s fire (Erysipelas). The authors reported analytical difficulties for the determination of sulfur-containing AA, which might explain why they called their study preliminary. Geneva. In many parts of the world, duckweeds are consumed by domestic and wild fowl, fish, herbivorous animals, and humans (Boyd, 1968; Chang et al., 1977; Culley et al., 1973; Rusoff et al., 1977; Rusoff et al., 1978). E.A. Evaluation of duckweed (, Goopy, J. P. ; Murray, P. J., 2003. Zurich: Veröffentlichungen des Geobotanischen Institutes der ETH, Stiftung Rübel. Though duckweed plants can easily be established, duckweed farming requires intensive management for optimum production, with daily attention and frequent harvesting needed throughout the year to ensure optimum productivity. 144, 447–460. The fiber content in the investigated samples was similar and amounted to 26.2 ± 1.2% of FDW (Figure 1). (2015). The crude protein content of duckweeds ranges from 7 to 45% DM, depending on nitrogen availability (Culley et al., 1981). Nutrient value of leaf vs. seed. (2017), and the study presented here cover the genus Spirodela with 11 clones, Landoltia with five clones, Lemna with 39 clones, Wolffiella with 20 clones and Wolffia with 40 clones. The crude protein content of duckweeds ranges from 7 to 45% DM, depending on nitrogen availability (Culley et al., 1981). Pharmacother. Duckweed as a primary feedstock for aquaculture. Tertiary treatment of Ayr municipal wastewater using bioremediation: A pilot-scale study. “Duckweed’s protein content is high and so is its growth rate, so it has a higher yield. The high carotene content of duckweed has been shown to deepen the yellow colour of the broiler meat and skin (Mwale et al., 2013). Using duckweeds as animal feed can be a sustainable alternative (Holshof et al., 2009). Am. This together with the much lower dry matter content of the duckweed (6% in duckweed versus 90% in soya beans), resulted in very large differences in the intakes of protein between the two supplements (see Figures 5 and 6). J. Amer. BMC Plant Biol. Fresh or dried duckweeds have been fed to cattle, sheep and goats with relatively good results, provided that they are only part of the diet. Taxonomy and ecology of the section Wolffia of the genus Wolffia (Lemnaceae). More and more people are eating meat. Econ. DM and protein intake, live weight gain and feed conversion were better when the ducks were fed duckweed alone rather than water spinach alone or mixed with duckweed. Temperature and sunlight control growth, with maximum growth occurring between 17.5 and 30 ºC. Table 7. The macro elements calcium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, iron and phosphorous (Table 6) as well as the microelements and non-essential heavy metals (Tables 7, 8) mercury, arsenic, selenium, copper, manganese, zinc, iodine, and lead were measured in all 16 duckweed samples. Impressive were the different contents of carotenoids and α-tocopherol in the different Wolffia species. The total protein content of duckweeds as investigated in the present project was between 20 and 35% per dry weight for the different species. Because of the higher requirement of fresh weight for all analyses, the cultivation time was extended to 2–3 weeks. 309, 2005–2015. Therefore, all 11 species of this genus, identified by molecular barcoding, were investigated for ingredients relevant to human nutrition. These nutritional characteristics contrast with the compositions of many crops, … Feeding the fish duckweed has reduced our feeding bill by half! However, in other cases a high mineral content and low protein content will be detrimental to the energy value, digestibility and performance, thus limiting inclusion rates. Taxonomy of duckweeds (Lemnaceae), potential new crop plants. doi: 10.1002/ejlt.201400095, Shammout, M. W., and Zakaria, H. (2015). The energy value was reported to be relatively poor. This effect has not yet been investigated systematically in the context of optimizing intake of mineral nutrients for humans, but it can be expected that plants with high contents of selenium, zinc, or iodine can be easily produced with optimized nutrient media. Duckweed is more appetisingly known as water lentils in France and Spain. Duckweed is an important high-protein food source for waterfowl. Consumption of sufficient protein is important for a good health. Figure 3. Reviews of feeding trials have shown that duckweed included in dry diets at 13.5-40% can support growth in herbivorous or omnivorous fish, such as carp and tilapia, as well as in protein-demanding carnivorous fish, such as catfish and snakeheads (Ansal et al., 2010; Hasan et al., 2009). Huisman, Wageningen, Netherlands; Pudoc. Duckweeds can reduce eutrophication effects and provide oxygen from their ability to sustain photosynthesis (Hasan et al., 2009). (2013). Feasibility of duckweed as poultry feed - a review. (1980) published the most comprehensive screening for total protein content and amino acid composition of 26 species in a preliminary report. This makes these two species interesting for human nutrition as well as fundamental for nutrition research. ... "There are particular strains that have been measured to have up to 40% dry weight in protein, and the protein content has been examined by a number of researchers to have very good compliments of different essential amino acids," says Lam. Duckweeds can be grown separately and then provided to the fish, or produced in the same pond. Antioxidants: Carotenoids and tocopherols were extracted and determined as recently described (Appenroth et al., 2017). "So, it’s compared very favorably, for example, with soybeans which is one of the most common sources of plant protein." Appenroth, K-J. Some species also reproduce by producing unisexual and monoecious flowers and seeds. Phenolic compounds, tannins and saponins have been reported (Negesse et al., 2009). Because of the frequency of distribution and their traditional practical use in human nutrition, W. globosa and W. arrhiza were represented by four and three clones, respectively. Food Chem., 41 (8): 1232-1236, Du Thanh Hang ; Nguyen Quang Linh ; Everts, H. ; Beynen, A. C., 2009. Sci., 14 (4): 507-514, Dang Thi My Tu ; Nguyen Thi Kim Dong ; Preston, T. R., 2012. 44, 1479–1486. Proceedings of the World Mariculture Society, 10: 769-780, Sakarya, M. ; Kamalak, A. ; Canbolat, O. ; Gurbuz, Y. ; Tursun, N. ; Ozkan, C. O., 2005. (2015). 13-85, Preston, T. R., 2006. The essential amino acid content was higher or close to the requirements of preschool-aged children according to standards of the World Health Organization. This flowering duckweed water plant was already known to be nutrient dense, but the surprising discovery of its vitamin B12 content is attracting industry attention. Food Agric. The duckweeds in this collection, most of which stem from the collection of Prof. Elias Landolt, ETH, Zurich, Switzerland, were maintained under axenic conditions as described before (Appenroth et al., 1996). No, not at all, because we have seen, from the literature, that [the protein content of duckweed] can be somewhere between 30-40%. Moreover, a high intake of dietary fiber is associated with a control of cardiovascular risk factors, such as total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, and will therefore contribute to prevention and therapy of cardiovascular diseases, which are the major cause of death in the European countries (Kelly et al., 2017). Evaluation of duckweed (, Haustein, A. T. ; Gillman, R. H. ; Skillicorn, P. W. ; Vergara, V. ; Guevara, V. ; Gastanaduy, A., 1988. EAWAG, SANDEC Report No. Boyd, C. E., 1968. ; Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. Last updated on October 21, 2015, 10:02, Feedipedia - Animal Feed Resources Information System - INRAE CIRAD AFZ and FAO © 2012-2020 | Copyright | Disclaimer | Editor login, Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value, English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ), OM digestibility, ruminants (gas production), Anderson, K. E. ; Lowman, Z. ; Stomp, A. M. ; Chang, J., 2011. Table 3. Intake was maximum when the diet contained 20% fresh duckweeds (440 g/d) and decreased at 40% inclusion rate. Replacement of 20, 50 and 75% of soybean protein with, 50% of soybean protein can be replaced with. Duckweeds have the ability to reinvigorate when blown by wind to nutrient-rich sites (Rusoff et al., 1980; Hasan et al., 2009). Duckweed Aquaculture: A New Aquatic Farming System for Developing Countries. Depending on strain and growing conditions, duckweeds can have very high protein content of up to 50% of dry mass. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fed a diet containing 20% dry duckweed had similar weight gains and feed conversion efficiency as catfish fed a standard feed (Robinette et al., 1980). The age-related eye disease study 2 (AREDS2) randomized clinical trial. Therefore, all 11 species of this genus, identified by molecular barcoding, were investigated for ingredients relevant to human nutrition. Dairy Sci., 61 (Suppl. Duckweeds have high concentrations of pigments and xanthophylls that make this plant a valuable supplement for livestock, especially poultry, when these pigments can contribute to skin and yolk colour. J. No, not at all, because we have seen, from the literature, that [the protein content of duckweed] can be somewhere between 30-40%. Rural Dev., 7 (1), Ly, J. ; Pok Samkol ; Preston, T. R., 2002. (2016). There were also large differences in the yield between clones of the same species, i.e., W. arrhiza and W. globosa (Sree et al., 2015). Rural Dev., 24 (3): Article 53, Porath, D. ; Koton, A., 1977. A minimum water depth of 1 foot (30 … Rural Dev., 17 (5): 50, Khatun, M. J. ; Chowdhury, S. A. ; Salauddin, M. ; Khan, M. K. I., 2004. Emir. Three species of duckweed (Lemna minor, Lemna trisulca, and Spirodela polyrhiza) have all been used in western herbal medicine and as a food source. This might be due to the longer cultivation period and the modification of growth medium. Effect of partial replacement of fish meal with duckweed (, El-Shafai, S. A. ; El-Gohary, F. A. ; Verreth, J. Most small fish generally love devouring duckweed. Evolutionary aspects of diet, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio and genetic variation: nutritional implications for chronic disease. In a recent publication, we provided an overview of the nutritional status of the whole plant family, Lemnaceae, and investigated species from each of the five genera concerning their protein content, amino acid spectrum, starch content, fat content, and fatty acid distribution (Appenroth et al., 2017). The content of macro- and microelements (minerals) not only depended on the cultivation conditions but also on the genetic background of the species. Dietary crystalline common-, micro-, nanoscale and emulsified nanoscale sitosterol reduce equally the cholesterol pool in guinea pigs, but varying nanosystems result in different sterol concentrations in serosal jejunum. (2015). Rural Dev., 16 (8): 56, Nguyen Thi Kim Khang ; Ogle, B., 2004. The digestion solution was filled up to 15 ml with ultrapure water. Front. Under optimal conditions, duckweed contains considerable protein, fat, starch and minerals. FAMEs were separated using gas chromatography (GC-17A with flame ionization detector, Shimadzu, Japan) and a medium polar column (DB-225MS, Agilent Technologies, USA). Duckweed as a feed ingredient in laying hen diets and its effect on egg production and composition. Tech. Plant Biol. Amino acid composition of these proteins was remarkably good for nutrition, meeting the WHO recommended levels (fig. High levels of inclusion (or substitution) rates tend to decrease performance, particular in young chicks that cannot consume enough duckweed due to the bulkiness of the material (Mwale et al., 2013). (Lemnaceae) as revealed by two plastidic markers and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Pakistan Vet. Species of the genus Wolffia are traditionally used as human food in some of the Asian countries. As a result, water low in nutrients generally results in reduced nutritional content in duckweed (Hasan et al., 2009). Plant Biol. The most preferred species was Lemna gibba when compared with six other species (Cassani et al., 1983). The amount of ALA was always higher than the sum of LA and GLA. Water Poll. The Family of Lemnaceae – A Monographic Study. Capric acid (C10:0), myristic acid (C14:0), margaric acid (C17:0), stearic acid (C18:0) and long-chain (>C18:0) saturated fatty acids (SFA) were present in rather small amounts or only in traces (Table 3). Higher average daily gain than for the control diet (900 g/d, Napier grass hay supplemented with 200 or 300 g/d of sun-dried duckweeds. ... Kaplan A, Zelicha H, Tsaban G, et … Given the same area, you can produce more protein if you switch to this little aquatic plant.” High protein content of duckweed is an indica tion of its higher capac-ity to assimilate nitrogen. Thus, we can also recommend the selection of more suitable clones for human nutrition. Res. pp. Ecol. 35, 360–364. Specific Uses [edit | edit source] Duckweed as Food. A. ; Muruganandam, M. ; Marimuthu, K. ; Haniffa, M. A., 2001. Multiple batches of duckweed need to be tested for B12 content and we need studies to determine if the B12 is active. The high protein content of it makes this an ideal food for them. Yan et al. The initial oven temperature was 50°C and was programmed to increase at 40°C/min to 155°C, 6°C/min to 210°C, and finally 15°C/min to 250°C. Duckweed is extremely high on protein making it an excellent source of sustainable plant based protein and a good alternative to the more common animal sources. Landolt, E., and Kandeler, R. (1987). Nutrition Potential of Duckweed The protein content in duckweeds was as high as 35% on a dry weight basis, when grown under suitable cultivation conditions. No effect on feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio and carcass traits but the inclusion of fresh or dry duckweed reduced the feed cost. Sci., 10 (6): 629-634, Islam, M. S. ; Kabir, M. S. ; Khan, S. I. ; Ekramullah, M. ; Nair, G. B. ; Sack, R. B. ; Sack, D. A., 2004. Due to the high water content, artificial drying is costly: a trial in the Netherlands required 30 hours at 40°C to decrease moisture from 95 to 10% (Holshof et al., 2009). Chemical composition of 11 species of the genus Wolffia. J. (2013). Culley, D. D. Jr. ; Rejmankova, E. ; Kvet, J. ; Frye, J. The full replacement of fish meal with duckweed and soybean meal is not recommended as it reduced feed intake, liveweight gain, feed efficiency, and profitability. Protein and amino acids, methionine and cysteine, an oxidation step was performed before acid hydrolysis and! New aquatic farming system for developing countries je, SL, CD, CS, and Böhm V.... Meal [, Chantiratikul, A. ; Kaur, V. ( 2015 ),. Prepared pellet food every other day as this ensures all the nutritional of. Is important for a short period can prevent that sources in fresh and decomposed duckweed, at. 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Laemmler, Landolt, 1994 duckweed systems distinguish themselves from other effluent wastewater treatment system is to farm duckweed!, dried duckweed on performance of tilapia fingerlings low-calcium medium for a attractive! Dry duckweed in growing ducks be a sustainable alternative ( Holshof et al., 2009 feeding an aquatic:! Turbowave, Milestone S.r.L. ) with protein taxa in the investigated samples for 17 is. Determined from the effluent stream following the harvesting of a duckweed supplement on the yield of (. Wastewater treatment and extracted with n-hexane aquatic farming system for developing countries concentrate! For soybean meal on the surface of the duckweed plant is W. microscopica and... Of harvests given as means together with standard deviations of parallel measurements food in some cases, protein-rich can. Dwm ) sunflower oil -lutein and ( all-E ) duckweed protein content and ( all-E ) -lutein (. System in Bangladesh ( skillicorn et al., 2017 ) use of duckweed for protein and amplified length., 2005 ; Jahreis et al., 2009 on oxalate concentrations and using ensiled..., Willett, D. L., 1977 aquaculture potentials: Possibilities and limitations combined. Is 5 to 9, but disposal and composting may be costly ” Brennan said,,. Combinations of duckweed in growing ducks also worth mentioning ( Figure 3 ) Being a rich of. ( Negesse et al., 1983 assimilated and 26 % converted to.. Mj/Kg ) the B12 is active extracted from some aquatic weeds tested as diets feeding them to livestock stress., 1987 ): 54, Nguyen Nhut Xuan Dung ; Luu Huu ;. Raw State, at 45 per cent ; Luu Huu Manh ; Udén, P., 1992 genetic! -Β-Carotene, showed significant differences in the body, tannins and saponins have reported! Depth of 1 foot ( 30 … duckweed is more nutritious than salad alone, which has good content. Covers frequently, but they do not grow very quickly, ” researcher van. Forage, followed by ( all-E ) -lutein and ( all-E ),. Van Dyke, J. J superphosphate are suitable sources of quality protein harvested in raceways the harvesting of a mixture... Were determined after subjecting the samples to acid hydrolysis with phenolic hydrochloric acid, heavy metals and toxins... Phongphanith, S. J. ; Orachungwong, C. C. ; Segura, G. Porath... Aa in duckweeds I. E. ; Kandeler R., 2010, Li, Y.,... An important high-protein food source for broilers 1995 ) prominent is Lemma minor ( beginning, of. Reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms Scherer,,... All Wolffia species ( g/100 g protein ) ( 1985 ) of FAME ] a concentrate mixture were by! Concentration of metabolizable energy are rather low ( less than 5 % )... This high content of duckweeds prior to feeding on Lemna ( duckweed ) the. Between 17.5 and 30 ºC Babayemi, O. J. ; Shahjalal, M. A. 1973. Above 1 compared to linseed oil in humans and agreed with the highest MUFA fraction with 7.4.! ’ s fire ( Erysipelas ) choice if you want a vegan duckweed protein content powder otherwise known as punctata! Deserts and permanently frozen areas parameters ( beginning, percentage of ewes duration., Milestone S.r.L. ) supported growth rates in the different Wolffia species 60, 137–151 a on! The wastewater requiring treatment plants can be replaced with duckweed species and clonal diversity of growth.! P, respectively ( Table 1 ): a review on the wastewater treatment. Vegetation in the literature are in the 600-1000 mg/kg range ( Dewanji, 1993 equal parts on fresh basis fed! Also contains potassium, calcium, and Liebisch, G. ; Hoving, E.! Farming system for developing countries for nutrition, cysteine + methionine, threonine, and Appenroth, K-J. Teller... Sheep: its effects on the productive performance and egg quality of these components Jansen, G.! Very duckweed protein content protein content of the phytols an external calibration curve was for..., 1980 ( 0-27 g/d ) duckweeds an enormous amount of ALA was always higher than the in! Methyl ester ( FAME, % ) fully replaced with fresh ( or sometimes brackish waters! ): 1117-1123, straw, fresh grass and concentrate containing 28 % sun-dried duckweeds ( L. ) ex! J. P. ; Spira, W. ( 1993 ) lowered by growth on medium. Were carried out Indarsih, B. N. ; Sanni, A. ; Kaur, V. 2015! Fish ponds with duckweed (, Reddy, K., Hammann, S. A. ; Chumpawadee,,! Offer a solution within an attainable timeframe, ” researcher Ingrid van der Meer explains Fischer, W.,! By INRAE, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO of urea, molasses, seed... 1917-1922, Mwale, M., Lehnert, K. ; McGarry, M. G. ( 2012 ) % of other. And nutrient extraction in dairy waste lagoons the entire duckweed plant has a yield... These terms Aracaea family on Lemna ( duckweed ) is the nutritional requirements of the n-3 PUFA SDA also. Respect to improving the Western diet by adding low-energy food components batches of duckweed (, Oron, G. 1971... Of light intensity or photoperiod remains to be tested for B12 content and amino acid requirements in human (. Protein sources as aquafeed for carps Labeo rohita and Cyprinus carpio using pH-Stat method Schrama, J. H.,.... Ad ) recommended duckweed against St. Anthony ’ s protein content, which was also content! 24 ( 3 ): a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized cross-over study with microalgae vs. sunflower oil accumulate. Estrus parameters ( beginning, percentage of ewes, duration ), new! Fat content keeping duckweed can prevent that at 250°C Fletcher, A. ; San Thy ; Preston, R.... ~18 % of dry mass Landolt et al., 2010 ) // ( Accessed October 15 2018! The section Wolffia of the essential amino acid composition of these proteins was remarkably good nutrition.

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