Mary was reluctant to accept John’s invitation. An introductory absolute phrase requires a comma to set it off from the main clause, as you can see in these examples: Completely oblivious to the rain , the children continued to play outside. Here are … Introductory phrases Use introductory phrases to tell the reader what the author thinks or does in their text. If the phrase is a nice addition to the sentence but is not necessary for clarity, you should use a comma: However, if the introductory appositive phrase is necessary to the sentence, you should not use a comma. If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. He was eager to eat dinner. What Is the Difference Between Parts of Speech & Parts of a Sentence? These phrases also provide location and other helpful information. If the introductory phrase is less than four words, there is not need to use a comma. To stay top of the class, you have to study hard every day. Copyright 2020 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Education. "To Judy, he gave a gold bracelet." Introductory phrases and clauses 1. Introductory phrases to use and their contexts To assist you with effectively supporting your statements, we have organized the introductory phrases below according to their function. Here are some examples of sentences with introductory prepositional phrases: "After work, I like to go out for dinner." It can act as a noun, adjective, or adverb. Introductory phrases set the stage for the rest of your sentence, giving the reader valuable information about what is happening and why. Examples of introductory words: Meanwhile, however, therefore, thus, moreover. Here are examples: He was waiting for the rain to stop. There are five common types of introductory phrases, and it’s important to understand how to use each one correctly. 1.1 Embedded Questions: Introductory Phrases 1.2 Embedded Questions: Examples 1.3 Embedded Questions: Tenses 1.4 Embedded Questions and Contractions 1.5 Embedded Questions: Whether and If 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Read these examples twice, once with the introductory words and once without. For example, read the following sentence and notice the introductory phrase that comes before the subject, which is she. The prepositional phrase adds information to the main clause, often about a location or timing. Verb Phrases A verb phrase consists of a verb and all its modifiers. Clauses, phrases or words that provide extra information. In the sentence, "With the trees already growing back, the field was returning to nature," "with the trees already growing back" is an introductory absolute phrase. Each type serves a distinct purpose within the sentence. For example: Checking methodically, we never miss a mistake. Examples: In the middle of the These examples can clear up any confusion: In general, it’s usually correct to use a comma after an introductory phrase. Phrases don't have both a subject and a verb that are separate from the subject and verb in the main clause of the sentence. If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked. I always use the comma, for two reasons. Some style guides allow for short introductory phrases to precede the independent clause of a sentence without a comma if the resulting sentence is short and its meaning clear. The phrases are usually set off with a comma. The word "to" followed by the base form of a verb is called an infinitive, and it is used to talk about the verb in the abstract, not connected with a subject. Simply put, an introductory phrase is a group of words that comes before the main clause in a sentence. Always punctuate with a comma after using an introductory word. INTRODUCTORYWORDS&*PHRASES* Introductorywordsandphrasesareusedastransitionstoprovidebackgrounddetailsconcerningwho,what, when,!where,!why,!and!how. In contrast, this introductory clause example includes both a subject and a verb: Because the horse was galloping quickly, he reached the other side of the pasture in less than a minute. An introductory phrase is not a complete clause; it does not have a subject and a verb of its own. To use it properly, you need to use a comma after the introductory prepositional phrase to set it apart from the rest of the sentence if the phrase is longer than four words. When you see a subordinating conjunction at the beginning of a sentence, this signals an introductory phrase, and you know a comma is coming at the end of that subordinate phrase, as illustrated in these examples: Because his favorite team lost the Super Bowl, he would not speak to anyone about the game for two years. Content Indirect Questions Yes, you are allowed to chew gum balls during class, but don’t complain to me if you break a tooth. Commas and Introductory Clauses or Phrases This Grammar.com article is about Commas and Introductory Clauses or Phrases — enjoy your reading! “The other day, I met an old friend.” When writing a sentence, sometimes you may wish to set the scene for your statement by using an introductory phrase. Gerunds are not commonly used as introductory phrases, but participles are. Though the flowers were fading, their perfume remained strong. X claims -- Created using Powtoon -- Free sign up at http://www.powtoon.com/youtube/ -- Create animated videos and animated presentations for free. Here are some examples of sentences with introductory prepositional phrases: "After work, I like to go out for dinner." Introductory phrases give your writing a varied sentence structure and a sophisticated style. Stacked introductory phrases and dependent clauses also need commas: The next day, ↑ to avoid another argument, ↑ they arrived at the bus stop early. An infinitive phrase begins with the word “to” and includes a verb. You might enjoy a massage. As introductory phrases, they usually modify the subject of the sentence. You can use this as an introductory phrase, giving the reader more information about the subject of the sentence or another noun. An introductory absolute phrase requires a comma to set it off from the main clause, as you can see in these examples: An appositive phrase offers an alternative description of a noun in the sentence. "To Judy" is a noun phrase Mary had seen the movie twice already. Introductory elements consist of clauses, phrases and words that appear before the main clause of the sentence. Knowing that their project was due on Monday, Liezl, Maria, Use introductory infinitive phrases to describe the purpose of the main verb in your sentence. At home we eat ice cream for dessert. What Are Linking Verbs & Predicate Words? They contain supporting or descriptive information about the rest of the sentence's subject, main idea or main action. Use the introductory phrases to ask indirect questions and to know the formal registers when requesting information in English-speaking countries in situations of cordiality. "To Judy, he gave a gold bracelet." This is because you pause after the introductory phrase when you say the sentence aloud. Learn to spot the differences between phrases and clauses. All Rights Reserved, Introductory phrase horse galloping quickly. Learn introductory phrases english with free interactive flashcards. Choose from 500 different sets of introductory phrases english flashcards on Quizlet. As the initial examples demonstrate, introductory phrases with fewer than 5 words may need that comma to simplify the interpretation. Like an infinitive phrase, it may have a direct object. It sets the stage for the main clause, allowing the reader to understand the context of what is happening. AA phrasephrase is a group of words thatis a group of words that does notdoes not have a subject or a ver If it does, it’s called an introductory clause. The prepositional phrase, ‘Against his better judgment or logical reasoning’ needs a comma, since it contains more than four words. Here “after party” is An independent clause should follow the introductory word, and needs separated with a comma. Consider using the following after you have given the author's name (and the year or notation): X states that . 1. You can see how this works in this introductory phrase example: Galloping quickly, the horse reached the other side of the pasture in less than a minute. Introductory phrases and clauses John invited Mary to a movie. When you start with an appositive phrase, you often need to use a comma after it. Before you learn how to correctly use and punctuate an introductory phrase, you need to have a clear understanding of what one is and why you would use it in a sentence. Prepositional Phrases It begins with a preposition and includes it’s object. The introductory phrases in the following examples are participial phrases, verb phrases headed by the –ing or the –en form of the verb. First, the writer may not accurately predict what will be clear or confusing to the reader, so using the comma will reduce the potential for confusion. Stephanie Mitchell is a professional writer who has authored websites and articles for real estate agents, self-help coaches and casting directors. She graduated from Syracuse University in 2007 with a Bachelor of Fine Arts in musical theater. Like an infinitive phrase, always set this introductory phrase off with a comma: An absolute phrase also adds information to the main clause, providing context for the reader to interpret the rest of the sentence. Consider whether the phrase adds important clarifying information about the subject. In an introductory prepositional phrase, the sentence starts with a preposition and a few words that follow it. Common introductory phrases include prepositional phrases, appositive phrases, participial phrases, infinitive phrases, and absolute phrases. It can act as a noun, adjective or adverb. How to Start Sentences With Adjective Phrases. Learn more about comma usage rules to become a confident writer. "After work" is an adverb phrase telling when. This type of introductory phrase offers a little more detail about the way in which something is happening or the reason for which it is happening. Realizing that it was her last meeting with Jared Amy decided to say the words she always wanted to. There are many types of introductory phrases: 1. "Next door, the woman screamed." The introductory phrase is correctly followed by a comma: Against his better judgment or logical reasoning, he played outside all afternoon instead of doing his homework. It has all the pieces of an independent clause except the verb "to be." Introductory Phrases & Commas Home Punctuation Introductory Phrases & Commas Introductory clauses, phrases and words are: Clauses, phrases or words that are not sentences. Comma to Set Off Introductory Phrases Use commas to set off an introductory phrase that is four or more words. A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition and includes the preposition's object. In the examples below, the introductory phrase contains two prepositional phrases: “during the production” and “of the film.” During the production of the film the director nearly quit. An appositive phrase is a noun phrase that describes another noun. First, what is aFirst, what is a phrase?phrase? During the production of the film, the director nearly quit. For example, here are two prepositional phrases that work as adjectives, since they describe the objects in the sentences: The team, with the blue stripes, won the game. Use introductory appositive phrases to give relevant information about the subject of a sentence, not irrelevant information. In the sentence, "Running like the wind, Sasha began to gain on him," "running like the wind" describes Sasha. A participial phrase can be used as an introductory In the sentence, "A great composer, Wagner wrote famous operas," "a great composer" is an appositive phrase describing Wagner. In the sentence "A great composer, Wagner liked to go to bed early," "a great composer" still describes Wagner, but it has nothing to do with the topic of the sentence: the time he liked to go to bed. An introductory paragraph, as the opening of a conventional essay, composition, or report, is designed to grab people's attention.It informs readers about the topic and why they should care about it but also adds enough intrigue to get them to continue to read. We hope these examples will help you be more confident in your use of introductory clauses. Introductory infinitive phrases act as adverbs. You should always use a comma after an introductory infinitive phrase, as you can see in these examples: A participial phrase is another form of verb phrase. This list is not exhaustive but will provide you with ideas of the types of phrases you can use. Appositive phrases usually come after the nouns they describe, but they may come before it, as they do when they are introductory phrases. "After work" is an adverb phrase telling when. Are there other phrases like this that are confusing? It may have a subject or a verb, but it can’t have both. There are several different types of introductory phrases, and there are specific rules for using these correctly. If there are two or more phrases and/or clauses before the subject, only put a comma after the last one. An absolute phrase includes a subject and information about it but not a verb. It is correct to use a comma and also correct to leave it out, as you can see in the example below: Using an introductory infinitive phrase also provides information to the reader, often about why something is happening. Mitchell also regularly edits websites, business correspondence, resumes and full-length manuscripts. An introductory prepositional phrase typically needs a comma when it contains more than four words, as shown in this example: 1. Introductory phrases worksheets. Essentially, they prepare your readers for what the sentence is … You have been sleeping for a long time. See how the meaning stays the same? Introductory Words: Introductory words are usually adverbs or interjections that provide an introduction to a sentence or paragraph. The prepositional phrase ‘At home’ doesn’t need a comma, since it’s short and clear. You can see the proper punctuation in these examples: If an introductory prepositional phrase is made up of fewer than five words and does not require a pause, the comma is optional. Here, you may find a few examples of proper using a comma after the introductory clauses: After returning home from Paris Evan was too excited to think about his work. Introductory phrases are similar to introductory clauses but are not complete clauses because they do not have both a verb and a subject. We can add introductory phrases at the start of sentences to provide additional information before the main clause. It may also include a direct object of the verb. She was upset when it didn't boil. Because she had seen the movie twice already, Mary was reluctant to accept "To Judy" is a noun phrase and the indirect object of the verb. Participle phrases are different from gerund phrases in that participles act as adjectives and gerunds act as nouns. Example: After party, they went to sleep. Let us know , and we can address them in future tips! Introductory Words, Clauses, and Phrases Introductory Clause Examples: Out of all the things that can be done online, Math homework should not be one of them As soon as I got home from school, I passed out on the couch. I encourage you to play around and craft your own unique messages. "Next door" is an adverb phrase telling where. Introductory phrases also set the stage for the main action of the sentence, but they are not complete clauses. Copyright © 2020 LoveToKnow. However, like all aspects of the English language, there are a few exceptions. Are there other phrases like this that are confusing? . 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