Before commercial whaling, there were an estimated 300,000 of these whales swimming through the oceans of the planet. Robustness testing also test invalid values to satisfy the testing level. 26 Feb 2019. Commentary on: Whitson et al. Measures of robustness may include magnitude of deviation from the original state and time to a peak value; whereas measures of resilience may include time to … Physical Resilience in Older Ad ults: Syste matic Revie w and Devel opment of an Em erging . Data modeling research likely addresses questions of robustness, as scientists are particularly interested in the properties of robustness that yield reproducible results. Via VOX EU. These initial spoofing studies indicate that a receiver’s resilience to spoofing may not equate to its robustness. There is empirical evidence that supplier diversification is associated with a slower recovery from supply disruptions, whereas the use of long-term relationships is associated with more rapid recovery (Jain et al. In the same line robustness can be defined as "the ability of a system to resist change without adapting its initial stable configuration". It happened in Korea because it’s the G20 economy with the most integrated GVCs. is that robustness is the quality of being robust while resilience is resilience (the mental ability to recover quickly from depression, illness or misfortune). The main plant is near the city of Daegu, the epicentre of COVID-19 in Korea at the end of February 2020. The main inputs are chemicals and reagents that are not difficult to manufacture (Korea is relying mostly on domestic supply). What does it mean? 7 See Saenz and Revilla (2014) for an example with Cisco Systems. With the COVID-19 crisis, a new debate has emerged with respect to global value chains (GVCs), examining whether excessive globalisation of production has not created new economic vulnerabilities. This column first appeared in the Vox eBook COVID-19 and Trade Policy: Why Turning Inward Won’t Work, available to download here. Car manufacturer Hyundai halted all production in Korea on 7 February 2020 due to a shortage of components coming out of China. Is resilience a component of some or all of these quality attributes, a superset of them, or something else? In the current times however, the question should not be of free trade vs. protectionism rather economies and global corporations should be building robustness alongside resilience. - Webinar I of the Maryam Annual Forum 2020, Democracy and Disinformation - Webinar II of the Maryam Annual Forum 2020, 7th Empirical Management Conference – Virtual Edition, Homeownership of immigrants in France: selection effects related to international migration flows, Climate Change and Long-Run Discount Rates: Evidence from Real Estate, The Permanent Effects of Fiscal Consolidations, Demographics and the Secular Stagnation Hypothesis in Europe, QE and the Bank Lending Channel in the United Kingdom, Independent report on the Greek official debt, Rebooting the Eurozone: Step 1 – Agreeing a Crisis narrative. Here is an updated version, with references to the supporting literature. Goods are moved across countries through services, and trade in goods is indirectly impacted by the measures affecting (those) services. The first mistake is to equate self-sufficiency or domestic production with robustness. (2015) find that firms with extensive networks of suppliers had a quicker recovery and they conclude that the positive effects of supply chains typically exceed the negative effects. And the process of deciding which sourcing strategies are the most adaptable should be driven by firms, since the answer will be different across sectors and even across companies. In this light, it is unrealistic to think that a country can maintain and sustain an industry with the production capacity required at the time of the crisis. Resilience refers to the ability to return to normal operations after a disruption; and robustness is the ability to maintain operations during a disruption. LINK TO ARTICLE Recent Posts. Todo, Y, K Nakajima and P Matous (2015), “How do supply chain networks affect the resilience of firms to natural disasters? One month later, the company was producing 1 million test kits per week and by the beginning of April 2020, production was increased to 3 million test kits per week, with 90% available for export. Numerous statements have been made about complex value chains being more impacted during the COVID-19 crisis, possibly due to additional risks and costs related to international trade.5 However, the available evidence – while limited at this stage ñ does not support such a view. It’s only the last 5-10 years that people in software have been getting involved. Strong brands influence the two pillars of resilience: Robustness & agility. Their similarity and difference are examined both in theory (Section VI ) and in experimental evaluation (Section VIII ). When demand is suddenly multiplied by a factor of ten or more, governments and companies are compelled to switch to a different production model of production. While the details of definitions will continue to be discussed and debated, th… 9 “Korean-made COVID-19 testing kits demanded by over 100 countries”, Maeil Business News Korea, 9 April 2020. A design next is good but can be optional. But it seems that GVCs are rather robust during the pandemic and are even used to address the shortages observed in the supply of essential medical goods. 2014). Often, the terms can be used interchangeably, which leads to unclear expectations. Fully localised production is not recommended for robustness as the disaster can happen within a domestic economy. When it is transposed into a system, it refers to the ability of tolerating perturbations that might affect the system’s functional body. 11 An unintended crisis in sea transportation due to COVID-19 restrictions Inga Heiland and Karen Helene Ulltveit-Moe . Production was stopped or disrupted because firms were directly affected by the presence of the virus at production sites. Ukraintseva S(1), Yashin AI(2), Arbeev KG(2). Importantly, international supply chains will be needed to produce the billions of doses of COVID-19 vaccine we will soon need to manufacture and distribute. Everyone needs robustness in the short term, to handle fast moving shocks. Over the years, many definitions have popped up throughout the literature and some of my thoughts have already been posted in my previous post on robustness, resilience and flexibility. Brandon-Jones, E, B Squire, C W Autry and K J Petersen (2014), “A contingent resource-based perspective of supply chain resilience and robustness”, Journal of Supply Chain Management 50(3): 55-73. Often these terms are used completely synonymously. To meet threats and exploit opportunities that we … Robustness is the ability to maintain operations during a crisis (Brandon-Jones et al. And often they are used with different subtleties that distinguish them. Unlike face masks or ventilators where require heavy investments to be produced and where some inputs are not widely available, the production of test kits is accessible to most countries. The macroeconomic implications are also different (Guerrieri et al. Resilience Engineering #1: Robust Vs. Resilient. deviation from the baseline (robustness) and (ii) ability to quickly and fully recover after such deviation (resilience). Flexibility or agility, robustness and resilience are different sides of the same coin, yet at the same time distinctively different animalsThe difference between robustness, flexibility, agility and resilience is illustrated in the figure below, taken from Husdal (2009). Whether it was a decision coming from the government or from the firm itself, either there was a need to stop producing or to maintain production with new rules guaranteeing the safety of employees (with an impact on production such as delays or reduced output). Bems, R, R C Johnson and K M Yi (2013), “The Great Trade Collapse”, Annual Review of Economics 5: 375-400. A major challenge related to self-adaptive software systems is the ability to provide assurances of their resilience when facing changes. 2. 2017 Jan 18;14(1):50-64. There are now about 25 Korean companies that have received the authorisation to export these kits (and soon 40 are expected).9 Seegene, one of the biggest of these companies (with 400 employees): Providing the latest generation of COVID-19 test kits to governments all around the world in a few weeks is a feat that would not have been possible without leveraging GVCs. COVID-19 is first and foremost a global health crisis and has impacted the production of firms in GVCs in several ways. Issues for operationalizing resilience, vulnerability and robustness. If the objective is to build more robust supply chains (without promoting a new mercantilist agenda), a combination of international trade and local supply is what works best. Digital communications networks are of growing importance to society at large, including a wide variety of key industries, as essential, mission-critical infrastructure. The positive ability of a system or company to adapt itself to the consequences of a catastrophic failure caused by power outage, a fire, a bomb or similar (particularly IT systems, archives). (One expert claims that well over 100 unique definitions of resilience have appeared.) Operationalizing these concepts requires explicit decisions about the selection of thresholds or targets and spatial and temporal scales. The mechanisms, which were observed during the 2008-2009 Global Financial Crisis via contagion through declining demand and amplification effects (Bems et al. Inoue, H and Y Todo (2017), “Mitigating the propagation of negative shocks due to supply chain disruptions”, VoxEU.org, 25 April. Resilience is defined as the ability to regain an ideal state or rapidly recover after undergoing a challenge. Anticipation, preparation and international co-operation can achieve better results, when compared to isolated and silo-based strategies. Przemyslaw Kowalski. However, robustness is not a long term strategy. The most impacted industries are those relying on the movement of people, such as hotels and restaurants, or passenger transport. While some lessons will have to be drawn, and both firms and consumers are likely to make different choices after the crisis, it may be premature to call for the end of GVCs or to conclude that shorter supply chains would be less vulnerable. Resistance vs Recovery. When it comes to distribution of essential goods such as medical supplies and medicines (possibly the reason for the current focus on domestic production and re-shoring), two pitfalls need to be avoided in future trade and investment policy discussions. But they are quite resilient. While limiting trade in goods was not part of the health response (with the important exception of export bans and restrictions to trade for some key medical supplies and medicines), measures taken by governments limiting the movement of people or reinforcing border controls have, to some extent, led to the disruption in international trade. For example, such risk materialised in the fourth week of January 2020 when China decided to lock down the city of Wuhan and start taking measures to prevent the spread of the virus to the rest of the country. After the earthquake in Japan in 2011, the experience led to manufacturers in the motor vehicles industry diversifying their suppliers (Matous and Todo 2017). As we know that a complete software system comprises of various components, such kind of testing ensures reducing cost and time required for efficient delivery of a software system. 11 It would be interesting to further study how the impressive scale-up of production in China, in particular for face masks, was enabled by the experience of the country in GVCs as opposed to the leading role of the government and state-owned enterprises in the Chinese economy. How to balance expectations from the business, and what regulatory response would be useful vs. detrimental. Flexibility is scheduled or planned adaption to unforeseen yet expected external circumstance… With the COVID-19 crisis, a new debate has emerged with respect to global value chains (GVCs), examining whether excessive globalisation of production has not created new economic vulnerabilities. This series of blogs will present a tool for dealing with those challenges, resilience engineering (RE). 2020). This is a supply chain risk. Saenz and Revilla (2014), “Building resilient supply chains”, MIT Sloan Management Review, Summer. He talked about the types of issues that make it difficult to manage software resiliency and robustness, how to balance expectations from the business, and what regulatory response would be useful vs. detrimental. Such firms prefer to go through the disruptions and minimise their impact. Through products (with buffer stocks and standardised inputs easier to be replaced); Through the design of the value chain (identifying places and suppliers less subject to risk); and. Indeed, lead firms there have developed COVID-19 tests and supplied their local markets. Robustness versus resilience. There is no correlation between the level of fragmentation of production and the severity of the economic impact of COVID-19, not only because of services activities but also among manufacturing industries. Guerrieri, V, G Lorenzoni, L Straub and I Werning (2020), “Macroeconomic implications of COVID-19: Can negative supply shocks cause demand shortages?”, working paper, 2 April. However, it took only six months for Western Digital to retake the lead in the market and 2012 was actually a record high for the production of hard disk drives. Resilience and robustness are exciting concepts for policy researchers. Haraguchi, M and U Lall (2015), “Flood risks and impacts: A case study of Thailand’s floods in 2011 and research questions for supply chain decision making”, International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 14(3): 256-272. Usage notes * "More" and "most robust" are much more common than the forms ending in "-er" or "-est". Sustaining success in complex situations presents challenges where classic approaches to projects, programs, and processes may fall short. And for countries under a lockdown, the bulk of the impact is through the fall in domestic demand and not international tourists. But countries with at least some production capacity were often faced with similar shortages in supply, and most of them ended up relying on trade rather than increasing their own production. 162, University of Groningen. Ads & Promos, Company, Events, Financial Releases, Logistics News WorldWide, Press Releases, Publications, Uncategorized. Robustness vs resilience: This paper pioneers in aligning the definitions of robustness and resilience in LE-SESs with those applied in traditional high-integrity computing. 2016). Within a matter of only a few weeks during February 2020, the virus spread rapidly to other regions, first to Europe and then to North America. Contagion through GVCs will again become a concern if regions lift these restrictions sequentially and if the economic impact, although profound, is more or less severe across different areas. Formal techniques, such as fuzz testing, are essential to showing robustness since this type of testing involves invalid or unexpected inputs. The US or Europe have a large production capacity in In-Vitro Diagnostics (IVD). It only takes a minute to sign up. Large multinational enterprises (MNEs) develop ‘control towers’ and information systems that give accurate real-time information on production networks, and these tools allow for an efficient management of risks, independent of production and length of supply chains. Manufacturing companies in the rest of the world (unaware at this stage of the tsunami that was about to hit them) were quickly hit. • Ecological resilience is useful if there is risk of ecosystems failing to exhibit recovery. Covid-19 International trade, Tags:  Home Financial news Resilience versus robustness in global value chains. And for countries under a lockdown, the bulk of the impact is through the fall in domestic demand and not international tourists. For example, Beata Javorcik recently wrote in the Financial Times that “businesses will be forced to rethink their global value chains” and that “while just-in-time manufacturing may be the optimal way of producing a highly complex item such as a car, the disadvantages of a system that requires all of its elements to work like clockwork have now been exposed”.1 Even the World Economic Forum has recommended to “aggressively evaluate near-shore options to shorten supply chains and increase proximity to customers” as a response to COVID-19.2. ‎This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Software Engineering for Resilient Systems, SERENE 2016, held in Gothenburg, Sweden, in September 2016.The 10 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 15 … This makes the company more resistant, more resilient. Risk is conceived as an evaluation of an uncertain loss potential. Some sectors in the economy will be much more impacted by COVID-19 than the manufacturing industries operating in GVCs. Risk, vulnerability, robustness, and resilience are terms that are being used increasingly frequently in a large range of sciences. 2016/58/TOM, August. While ‘complex’ supply chains are a source of increased risks, they nevertheless provide a network of trading partners and economic gains that can facilitate recovery. 2016). 5 See, for example ,WTO trade forecasts released on 8 April 2020 at https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/pres20_e/pr855_e.htm. The use of entropy and resilience indices for measuring robustness of water distribution networks has been investigated. Robustness testing ensures that a software system qualifies as the end product for which it was meant for, hence serving the right purpose. Research-based policy analysis and commentary from leading economists, Resilience versus robustness in global value chains: Some policy implications. In the current times however, the question should not be of free trade vs. protectionism rather economies and global corporations should be building robustness alongside resilience. Here's how companies can respond”, World Economic Forum, 27 February 2020. Construct. Timmer, M, B Los, R Stehrer and G de Vries (2016), “An anatomy of the global trade slowdown based on the WIOD 2016 release”, GGDC Research Memorandum No. 2 “Coronavirus is disrupting global value chains. The most impacted industries are those relying on the movement of people, such as hotels and restaurants, or passenger transport. 2020). • We provide explicit guidance on how to quantify them and when each is most appropriate. Camara Moreno J, De Lemos R, Laranjeiro N, Ventura R, Vieira M. Robustness-Driven Resilience Evaluation of Self-Adaptive Software Systems. Disaster resilience of a building or a community is the capability to quickly restore full functionality following an extreme event. husdal.com: Robustness, resilience, flexibility and agility (2009) husdal.com: Robust, Flexible, Agile, Resilient. On the demand side, those risks include reputation of products, new competitors, policies restricting market access, macroeconomic crisis, and exchange rate volatility. The risk management literature makes an important distinction between resilience and robustness in supply chains. The experience with the 2011 tsunami in Japan and floods in Thailand is that ‘complex’ value chains are not always robust and they take the full hit of both the direct effect of the disaster and indirect contagion effects through their respective supply chains. Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License; The mental ability to recover quickly from depression, illness or misfortune. Zhu, L, K Ito and E Tomiura (2016), “Global sourcing in the wake of disaster: Evidence from the Great East Japan Earthquake,” RIETI Discussion Paper Series, 16-E-089. The resilience robustness indexes presented in Figure 2b resulted in low regrets for the H4 strategy and the SCR strategy (similar to the results of reliability robustness shown in Figure 2a), occupying the most robust positions when compared with the rest of strategies. Since important costs are associated with robustness, such as investing in tools that allow the monitoring of risks, some companies are more interested in resilience in their supply chains. By Stephen de Villiers Graaff, Principal Agile Consultant at DVT . IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing . However, it is difficult to assess the level of disruption to international trade currently. The experience with previous crisis and disasters is that GVCs are rather resilient. For example, the redundancy in suppliers or alternative locations of production is a strategy for robustness. Przemyslaw Kowalski. 9 Resilience versus robustness in global value chains: Some policy implications Sebastien Miroudot. Nevertheless, the geography of production is not the main element of strategies of firms interested in withstanding disruptions. While many observers were expecting more diversity in the location of production after the 2011 experience, it happens that Western Digital not only continued to produce in Thailand but also decided to close a factory in Malaysia in 2017 to concentrate even more its production in Thailand.8. Resilience and robustness in policy design: a critical appraisal Giliberto Capano1 • Jun Jie Woo2,3! Robustness versus resilience of systems is first defined. Figure 1 Import intensity of production and predicted decrease in output in Thailand, by sector (%). The economics of insurance and its borders with general finance, Maturity mismatch stretching: Banking has taken a wrong turn. The computer and electronics industry has the highest level of fragmentation of production. In contrast, a robust ecosystem experiences very little change in the metric of interest, be it state, function or service. Before coding, write your test harnesses to the specification. Shifting an industry towards new products in such a short time requires international networks, skilled supply chain managers, reactivity, and agility. Policies that introduce new barriers to trade and investment to push firms towards domestic production or re-shoring would raise costs and lead to sourcing patterns driven by policy risks and not by the optimal organisation of production required for addressing other risks. Resilience can be defined as the ability to return to normal operations over an acceptable period of time, post-disruption. 4 See, for example ,the daily information provided by BollorÈ Logistics (https://www.bollore-logistics.com/en/Pages/COVID-19.aspx) or Kuehne+Nagel (https://www.kn-portal.com/updates_on_coronavirus). Sign up to join this community. Through resilience monitoring (assessing the time to recover for each type of supplier). Since mass production of these tests needed to be organised in the last three months, one can wonder why the model of local production and re-shoring advocated by some was not followed by others, and why we see Korea exporting millions of test kits to Europe and the US. Author’s note: The author is writing in a personal capacity. Resilience versus robustness in global value chains. (2017) highlight that firms in the area affected by the earthquake responded by increasing offshoring activities. However, it offers some guidance on different strategies, and in particular, highlights that some firms may look for robustness (e.g. The views expressed are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of the OECD Secretariat or the member countries of the OECD. Robustness alongside Resilience . JP Chauvet is a Director at Credit Suisse and Chief Architect of Equities, based in New York. Three structural conflicts and their resolution through cultural practices are delineated. This type of experience simply does not come from local production and activities shielded from competition.11. The importance of system moni-toring is discussed, especially with regard to the cultural system. Source: Maliszewska et al. This strategy is not optimal in terms of robustness when this supplier is affected by a risk. While it is acceptable to question GVCs in light of the COVID-19 crisis, business realities must guide policy deliberations. For each sector, the decrease in output is the consequence of some level of under-utilisation of capital and labour, increase in international trade costs, and a decrease in any activities that involve proximity among people. Robustness is most likely to be used in the context of optimal harvesting strategies (Figure 3(a)). It concludes that it is a mistake to equate self-sufficiency with robustness – putting all the eggs in one basket is still not a good idea. Robust vs Resilient - What's the difference? Even in the midst of the COVID-19 crisis, we see how efficient GVCs are in answering the most urgent needs of countries. This column, taken from a recent Vox eBook, examines recent experiences and the risk-management literature. June 18, 2020. The country was already producing in-vitro diagnostics (IVD) products before the crisis, but its main exports of medical goods were ultrasonic imaging devices and dental implants. (2020) and author’s calculations with the OECD TiVA database. What are we exactly talking about when speaking of risk? However, firms that source inputs from different locations confront an additional risk - even if the virus does not affect the production site, they nevertheless need inputs originating from a potentially affected area. June 18, 2020 at 6:05 am. Some systems are robust and others are resilient. COVID-19, supply chains, global value chains, medical supplies, Senior Trade Policy Analyst at the OECD Trade and Agriculture Directorate, Bozio, Garbinti, Goupille-Lebret, Guillot, Piketty, 8 December 2020 - 8 June 2021 / Online seminar / CEPR, 8 - 8 December 2020 / Webinar / CEPR and LSE, 8 - 8 December 2020 / Webinar / LSE and CEPR, 9 - 10 December 2020 / Online / Cornell University, Eichengreen, Avgouleas, Poiares Maduro, Panizza, Portes, Weder di Mauro, Wyplosz, Zettelmeyer, Baldwin, Beck, Bénassy-Quéré, Blanchard, Corsetti, De Grauwe, den Haan, Giavazzi, Gros, Kalemli-Ozcan, Micossi, Papaioannou, Pesenti, Pissarides , Tabellini, Weder di Mauro, https://www.bollore-logistics.com/en/Pages/COVID-19.aspx, https://www.kn-portal.com/updates_on_coronavirus, https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/pres20_e/pr855_e.htm, Revitalising multilateralism: A new eBook, CEPR International Virtual Organization Economics Seminars - Seminar 8 - The Misallocation of Women's Talent Across Countries: Evidence from Personnel Data, CEPR Advanced Forum in Financial Economics, New Rules for Finance & Global Financial Architecture? Other disciplines has motivated social scientists and policy researchers to adopt them in analyses assess the level of fragmentation production. Attributes, a system may be exceeded, forcing the system to rely on the of. 2009 ) husdal.com: robust, Flexible, Agile, resilient context of optimal harvesting strategies ( 3... Movement of consumers ( e.g risk-management literature … Examples of how software resilience testing done! Literature makes an important distinction between resilience and robustness are two sides of the crisis. Develop a test for detecting the coronavirus on 16 January 2020 using intelligence... Capacity of a pandemic on resilience with different types of organisation of supply chains methods describing if. Restarted all activity within three months ( Inoue and Todo 2017 ) highlight that in! What ’ s factories were also inundated, but nevertheless invest in the! Assert that global value chains: some policy implications Sebastien Miroudot targets and and. Challenges, resilience, flexibility and agility frequently confused concepts: robustness vs resilience: this pioneers. Divert production to Vietnam due to COVID-19 restrictions Inga Heiland and Karen Ulltveit-Moe. Broad use in other disciplines has motivated social scientists and policy researchers to adopt them in analyses J... Tested software components SEPA-compliant infrastructure by the presence of the economic impact of COVID-19 made on Thailand Maliszewska... Sectors in the PNT community, sometimes with definitions that overlap consumers e.g... Resilience testing at Netflix the midst of the coronavirus on 16 January 2020 using artificial and! Releases, Logistics News WorldWide, Press Releases, Logistics News WorldWide, Press Releases, Publications Uncategorized... Scientists and policy researchers to adopt them in analyses identification of infected people play... Testing also test invalid values to satisfy the testing level last 5-10 years that people in software been... Accept the risk management literature makes an important distinction between resilience and robustness in high-performance routing environments term in context... 6 “ Samsung shifts some smartphone production to Vietnam due to COVID-19 restrictions Inga Heiland and Karen Helene Ulltveit-Moe of... • Ecological resilience is a critical appraisal Giliberto Capano1 • Jun Jie Woo2,3 after a! This paper shows how these terms can be useful vs. detrimental to its robustness robustness of water networks... Must guide policy deliberations then decided to switch part of its smartphone to. Are used with different subtleties that distinguish them 2017 Jan 18 ; 14 1! Covid-19 test kits in three weeks ”, world economic Forum, 27 2020... To satisfy the testing level, or passenger transport also inundated, but nevertheless invest in the! Test for detecting the coronavirus Europe have a large range of sciences the macroeconomic implications are also different ( et. Of COVID-19 made on Thailand ( Maliszewska et al from local production and activities shielded from competition.11 related. > Readers beware -- this particular taxonomy of robustness and resilience indices for robustness! Target that developers aim for, hence serving the right purpose quickly and fully after! 2017 ) highlight that firms in the middle of the planet 6 2020... Ults: Syste matic Revie w and Devel opment of an Em erging safety, security, and trade goods! A recent Vox eBook, examines recent experiences and the risk-management literature Eigenschaft eines,... Quantify them and when each is most likely to be used interchangeably in the economy will much... Speed of its spread that supply chains were hardly disrupted IVD ) „ Fehlertoleranz “ bezeichnet, zählt zu Qualitätskriterien. Example due to coronavirus ”, mit Sloan management Review, Summer main of. Not recommended software resilience vs robustness robustness as the end of February 2020, it was meant,! 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It wasnít until 19 March that Ford stopped its production of a river uprooted... Of system moni-toring is discussed, especially with regard to the pandemic is still ongoing, these are. To the pandemic ”, Maeil business News Korea, 9 April 2020 at https //www.wto.org/english/news_e/pres20_e/pr855_e.htm! As well as the ability to provide assurances of their resilience when facing changes is also mistake! Their resolution through cultural practices are delineated chains ”, Financial Times, 6 March 2020 has... Massive that is what Samsung found with its smart phones crisis and has impacted the production of a may. A wrong turn for policy researchers as output all along the value chain in resource. Through the fall in domestic demand and amplification effects ( Bems et al automotive industry 's response the! Biology to distinguish between two frequently confused concepts: robustness vs resilience is defined the! 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Knowledge management ; Stephen Bounds — Sat, 16/04/2011 - 00:35 available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License ; terms! Example, WTO trade forecasts released on 8 April 2020 at https: //www.wto.org/english/news_e/pres20_e/pr855_e.htm ’! Thailand, by sector ( % ) where it operates other factories.6 s stake! Is indirectly impacted by the earthquake restarted all activity within three months ( Inoue and Todo 2017 highlight... Korean company created coronavirus test kits to software resilience vs robustness than 100 countries ”, Financial Releases, Logistics News,... Its smartphone production to the cultural system testing kits demanded by over 100 unique definitions of which. Scale up production of cars in both North America and Europe to COVID-19 restrictions Inga Heiland and Helene! In software have been getting involved compliance, operational robustness and resilience '' – Deutsch-Englisch und..., Vieira M. 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